Suramya's Blog : Welcome to my crazy life…

June 9, 2023

Sound based Quantum Computers are now closer to reality due to breakthrough research

We all know about the ongoing efforts to build a Quantum Computer by encoding information into quantum states of particles of light (photons), however there is a parallel effort ongoing that is trying to build Quantum Computers that are based on Sound instead of light. This effort being led by Andrew Cleland at the University of Chicago, just had a major breakthrough and created a device that is a key component in building a sound based Quantum Computer.

Phonons are the fundamental quantum vibrations within materials, with individual phonons representing the collective motion of many trillions of atoms. The team built a chip that allows them to create single phonons on demand which are about a million times higher pitched than audible sound. They then passed it into a beam splitter which consists of 16 tiny, parallel aluminium strips designed so that any sound that hits them gets reflected and transmitted in equal parts. At supercooled temperatures they found that the Phonon entered a quantum superposition state where the whole particle was simultaneously in the state of being reflected and transmitted.

Cleland says that this is exactly what they hoped would happen because this process is a necessary step for running calculations on quantum computers that rely on particles of light. To make their chip even more like a sound-based quantum computer, the researchers also successfully recreated the way two particles of light are commonly made to “talk to each other” and how their behaviour is controlled during light-based computations.

Here, they simultaneously sent two phonons from opposite directions into the beam splitter and saw their respective superposition states influence each other. In the future, they will use this procedure to implement simple operations that make up computer programs.

Dirk Bouwmeester at the University of California, Santa Barbara, says that for particles of light, procedures like quantum teleportation or creating entanglement hinge on using beam splitters, and now they could be done with particles of sound as well. “It is truly spectacular that the team could replace photons with phonons,” he says.

There are a lot of interesting applications for this technology once it matures, for example it could be used to connect computer components that are hard to connect to each other. Using sound as the carrier instead of light opens up more possibilities. Their research has been published in the Science Journal (DOI: 10.1126/science.adg8715)

Source: NewScientist: Sound-based quantum computers could be built using chip-sized device

– Suramya

June 7, 2023

Proof of Concept setup demoing technology to beam solar power down to Earth successfully demoed

Filed under: Astronomy / Space,Emerging Tech,Science Related — Suramya @ 4:20 PM

The ability to beam power from space to earth has long been a staple of Science Fiction books and movies. On the surface it makes sense, space is huge and if we can setup solar panels in space to collect energy and get it to earth in a usable format then it is a win-win. No more having to deal with fossil fuels/nuclear reactors etc. Folks have been working on this for over 5 decades now and progress was slow as most people focused their efforts on other options such as improving land based solar panels, geothermal etc etc.

Now researchers from California Institute of Technology (Caltech) have successfully demonstrated MAPLE (Microwave Array for Power-transfer Low-orbit Experiment) which is an array of 32 flat antennas packed onto a surface slightly larger than a dinner plate. During the experiment the energy was transmitted to earth and successfully received by a receiver on the roof of the Gordon and Betty Moore Laboratory of Engineering and they were able to successfully target receivers about a foot away alternatively and transmit ~200 milliwatts of power to the receiver that powered a LED light.

Using constructive and destructive interference between individual transmitters, a bank of power transmitters is able to shift the focus and direction of the energy it beams out—without any moving parts. The transmitter array uses precise timing-control elements to dynamically focus the power selectively on the desired location using the coherent addition of electromagnetic waves. This enables the majority of the energy to be transmitted to the desired location and nowhere else.

MAPLE features two separate receiver arrays located about a foot away from the transmitter to receive the energy, convert it to direct current (DC) electricity, and use it to light up a pair of LEDs to demonstrate the full sequence of wireless energy transmission at a distance in space. MAPLE tested this in space by lighting up each LED individually and shifting back and forth between them. The experiment is not sealed, so it is subject to the harsh environment of space, including the wide temperature swings and solar radiation that will be faced one day by large-scale SSPP units.
MAPLE also includes a small window through which the array can beam the energy. This transmitted energy was detected by a receiver on the roof of the Gordon and Betty Moore Laboratory of Engineering on Caltech’s campus in Pasadena. The received signal appeared at the expected time and frequency, and had the right frequency shift as predicted based on its travel from orbit.

This is a big step forward, but I still have major doubts about the feasibility of the project, at least in the current form. Here we are using microwaves to transmit the energy from space to earth, at the level of power we need to transmit the microwave beam will cook anything that crosses it, for example if a plane flies through the beam you can say goodbye to the passengers. Even if we decide that we will establish a no-fly zone around the area what is to stop birds etc from flying into the beam and getting fried. Another problem is that microwave beams generate heat as a side-effect and that can cause a major heating of the atmosphere and change the air-currents which can cause a massive environmental impact.

We also need to consider that in order to collect the solar energy at a scale where it would be useful and make financial sense we would need to setup massive solar-panels in space. This will case a huge problem for astronomers. We already have issues being caused by the Starlink Satellites, this will be the same but at a much larger scale.

However, that being said I see the potential and if we can ever get quantum entanglement or spooky action at a distance as Einstein called it working reliably and consistently then that could potentially be used to transmit the power to earth without frying everyone in the path.

Lets see what else the researchers come up with…

Source: In a First, Caltech’s Space Solar Power Demonstrator Wirelessly Transmits Power in Space Satellite beams solar power down to Earth, in first-of-a-kind demonstration

– Suramya

May 16, 2023

Using AI powered chatbots to answer questions about a book series

Filed under: Books Related / Reviews,Emerging Tech,Tech Related — Suramya @ 5:38 PM

One of the things that I have been wanting for a while is the ability to look up stuff about a book or series so that when a new book in the series comes out I don’t have to re-read the old books before starting the new one. I end up doing that because otherwise since I have forgotten a large part of the backstory it would make the new book a lot less enjoyable. There are some authors who solve this problem by summarizing the backstory when the book starts and it is really useful. When ChatGPT and associated AI bots started picking up one of the ideas I came up with was to create a chatbot trained on a book series so that I can ask it a question about the book and get an answer. Would be really useful when dealing with book series with a large cast and multiple overlying stories.

Recently privateGPT showed up in my feed with the following claim: “Ask questions to your documents without an internet connection, using the power of LLMs. 100% private, no data leaves your execution environment at any point. You can ingest documents and ask questions without an internet connection!” and it seemed like it was the perfect tool for what I wanted to do so I downloaded the program from GitHub and set it up on my machine.

Once the software was installed, I copied a single book from the Mercedes Lackey Valdemar series called Darian’s Tale 01: Owlflight into a temp directory and told privateGPT to ingest the contents. The ingestion took hours even though the file was only ~600kb in size, I left it running overnight and it completed sometime during the night. Then I ran the prompt to be able to query the chatbot. The first few times I tried querying it, the app crashed because I ran out of memory. So I enabled SWAP on my system and then it finally ran the query and answered.

Unfortunately the answers I got were complete nonsense. You can see the questions I asked and the answers I got below:

Enter a query: what is a heartstone

llama_print_timings:        load time =   974.93 ms
llama_print_timings:      sample time =     0.00 ms /     1 runs   (    0.00 ms per run)
llama_print_timings: prompt eval time =   974.77 ms /     7 tokens (  139.25 ms per token)
llama_print_timings:        eval time =     0.00 ms /     1 runs   (    0.00 ms per run)
llama_print_timings:       total time =   977.55 ms

A heartstone is a type of music that is typically composed in the key of F major. It is characterized by a steady rhythm and a melody that is often slow and mournful. 
Heartstones are often used in classical music and are often associated with love and loss. They are also used in some contemporary music genres, such as folk and world music.

The correct answer is (as per Valdemar Fandom Wiki):

A Heartstone is both an artificial node produced by the Tayledras and the node’s physical anchor. The knowledge of how to create a Heartstone was given to the Tayledras by the Star-Eyed after the Sundering of the Clans. She tasked the Tayledras to cleanse the untamed magic caused by the Mage Wars. A Heartstone is used as a vessel to contain the cleansed magic. Ley-Lines are re-routed by Adepts and Masters to drain entirely into the Heartstone, bringing the surrounding area back to normal. Once their work is finished at that location, the Clan will establish a new Vale and Heartstone in a new area that needs cleansing. They drain the old Heartstone entirely and transfer the energy to the new Heartstone where they will begin their work anew.

So I asked another question:

Enter a query: who are the Hertasi

llama_print_timings:        load time =   974.93 ms
llama_print_timings:      sample time =     0.00 ms /     1 runs   (    0.00 ms per run)
llama_print_timings: prompt eval time = 26948.27 ms /     7 tokens ( 3849.75 ms per token)
llama_print_timings:        eval time =     0.00 ms /     1 runs   (    0.00 ms per run)
llama_print_timings:       total time = 26976.13 ms

The Herta si are a type of ghostly beings in the world of Eri. They are often associated with love and romance, and they are known for their ability to control and manipulate emotions. 
They are often depicted as beautiful, ethereal creatures, with long, flowing hair and eyes that glow with an otherworldly light. 

In this result it is talking about characters from a completely different series called the Herta. The correct answer is:

Hertasi are popularly considered to be one of the five non-human sentient races created by Urtho, but the work to “uplift” the hertasi was begun earlier, by Sorcerer-Adept Khal Herta. When he died, his work passed to Urtho.

The wild hertasi began as large, solitary lizards living in swamps, with the intelligence of a dog. They were “mild-tempered reptiles, available in large quantities, living fairly simple lives.”[1] They could have been described as semi-sentient before the Adepts took a hand. After Khal Herta’s efforts, Hertasi “had simple structures, organized hunting and fishing, and rudimentary medicine.”[1] Today, they are extremely active, intelligent, cave and tunnel-dwelling, social creatures.

Since the results were completely useless like all the other AI chatbots that I have tried so far, I have removed the software on my machine and will come back to this at somepoint later in time by when things would have hopefully improved.

– Suramya

April 19, 2023

Finally a useful AI Implementation: Making spoken dialog easier to hear in movies and shows

Filed under: Emerging Tech,News/Articles,Tech Related — Suramya @ 6:37 PM

Finally, an AI usecase that is actually useful. There are a ton of use cases where AI seems to be shoehorned in for no reason, but this recent announcement from Amazon about Dialogue Boost which is a new function from that lets you increase the volume of dialogue relative to background music and effects to a consistent volume so you can actually hear the dialog without nearly shattering the eardrums when a sudden explosion happens.
It is something that is still in the testing phase and is only released on some of their products so far. But I am looking forward to it being in general availability.

Dialogue Boost works by analyzing the original audio in a movie or series and identifying points where dialogue may be hard to hear above background music and effects, at which point speech patterns are isolated and audio is enhanced to make the dialogue clearer. The AI targets spoken dialogue rather than a typical speaker or home theater set up that only amplifies the center channel of audio. It’s something that exists on high-end theater set-ups and certain smart TVs, but Amazon is the first streamer to roll out such a feature.

I have gotten used to having subtitles on when I watch something because that ensures that I don’t miss out on any dialogs due to the background music/sounds in the show/movie. This looks like it will alleviate that requirement. I think I will still end up keeping the subtitles on but this will certainly help.

Source: Amazon’s New Tool Adjusts Sound So You Can Actually Understand Movie and TV Dialogue
Announcement: Prime Video launches a new accessibility feature that makes it easier to hear dialogue in your favorite movies and series

– Suramya

March 18, 2023

Scientists create a working supersolid in the lab

Filed under: Emerging Tech,My Thoughts — Suramya @ 11:34 PM

It seems that every year we learn more about the universe that makes the basic physics that we learned in school inaccurate or rather puts a lot of caveats in to the theories. Originally we had 3 states of matter: Solid, liquid and gas. Then came things like superfluids, Bose–Einstein condensates, quantum spin liquid, supercritical fluid, quark–gluon plasma, Rydberg polaron, and so many more weird possibilities. Last week, scientists from Innsbruck University in Austria have managed to create a new state of matter in 2D called Supersolids. Till now the researchers had only been able to create a 1D (a few molecules long) chain of SuperSolids but using cutting edge research they were able to create a 2D ‘paper’ of supersolid.

If you are like me, by now you will be wondering what on earth is a supersolid… Basically it is a state of matter that incorporates two different states of matter at the same time i.e. it is a solid as well as a superfluid at the same time. This gives it the ability to be a solid and still flow like a liquid without any friction at the same time. If that sounds confusing it is so because we are talking about Quantum effects which seem to exist in a state of constant contradiction and confusion (At least for me, when I try to understand them).

“To picture a supersolid, consider an ice cube immersed in liquid water, with frictionless flow of the water through the cube,” wrote Bruno Labruthe-Tolra, a physicist at Sorbonne Paris North University.

So, to create a supersolid, you first trap some atoms, then cool them, then play with their interactions. “If you tune those correctly, and you tune the shape of the trap correctly, you can get a supersolid,” says Norcia, the lead author.

Using this method, in 2019, researchers began to create a basic, one-dimensional supersolid: essentially, a thin supersolid tube in a straight line.

That’s what Norcia and his colleagues at Innsbruck University and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have now done. By tinkering with the device they used to trap atoms and the process they used to condense the atoms, they were able to extend their supersolid from one dimension into two: from a tiny tube into a small sheet.

There are a lot of interesting usecases for this technology when it matures, we could use it for lubrication in industrial machinery, create frictionless surfaces for tests. It could even be used in vacuum as is for various usecases. But that is still quite a way off because the work to go from 2D to 3D has just started and is still in the pre-research stage. However, while that is going on we do have a superSolid paper available for study while will give us more insight into this fascinating new substance.

The research has been published in Nature: Supersolids go two-dimensional

Source: We finally have a working supersolid. Here’s why that matters.

– Suramya

March 12, 2023

Researchers create mini-robot that can navigate inside blood vessels and perform surgery autonomously

Filed under: Emerging Tech,Tech Related — Suramya @ 11:13 PM

Performing surgery is a delicate task and at times it is almost impossible to reach the area we want to operate at without having to cut through other important tissues. This is even more apparent when we talk about surgery inside a blood vessel or artery, which could be the key to removing an obstruction or stitch a wound etc. Till now we didn’t have the ability to release an autonomous robot inside a blood vessel that could navigate to the correct location, perform the programmed actions (or allow the doctor to manually take over) and return.

This was only possible in the realm of Science Fiction but thanks to the efforts of Researchers at South Korea’s Hanyang University this is now actually possible in the real world. They have successfully demonstrated that their I-RAMAN (robotically assisted magnetic navigation system for endovascular intervention) robot can travel autonomously to a superficial femoral artery in a pig, deliver contrast dye, and return safely to the extraction point. Their results and paper was published on 9th Feb in IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters: Separable and Recombinable Magnetic Robot for Robotic Endovascular Intervention.

This study presents a separable and recombinable magnetic robot (SRMR) to deliver and retrieve an untethered magnetic robot (UMR) to a target vascular lesion safely and effectively for robotic endovascular intervention. The SRMR comprises a delivery catheter and UMR connected to the end of the delivery catheter by a connecting section. An external magnetic field (EMF) interacts with the permanent magnet of the UMR; it can effectively generate magnetic torque and steer the delivery catheter to reach a target lesion. Furthermore, the rotating EMF allows the UMR of the SRMR to separate from the delivery catheter and perform the tunneling task. After completing the tunneling task, the UMR can be safely recombined with the delivery catheter in the vasculature via a simultaneous application of the EMF and suction force to the delivery catheter. The SRMR functions of steering, separation, movement, tunneling, drug delivery, and recombination are validated in a mimetic vascular model with a pseudo blood clot. Finally, the SRMR is successfully validated in an in vivo experiment of a mini pig’s superficial femoral artery for contrast delivery, separation, movement, and recombination.

This is a fantastic achievement, and although there is a lot of work still left to be done before this can be deployed for actual human use we are still a step closer to truly universal repair bots. Imagine an accident victim who is bleeding internally, the doctor deploys these robots to restitch the blood vessels to stop the internal bleeding and within minutes the bleeding is stopped and the doctor can start the post-op work. I can imagine these being sold as part of the standard medkits in the future (way in the future) where you have a few pre-programmed options available and depending on the situation a person can select the correct option to deploy.

However, all is not rosy (as always). If these go into active use and become common enough to be deployed in med-kits then we would need systems to prevent these bots from being repurposed. For example, instead of being programmed to stitch blood vessels the bots are programmed to cause more damage and start internal bleeding. There are so many other scenarios where this could be misused so we would need to think of all the cases, mitigate the risk and only then deploy them into the world.

That being said, I am still excited to see the possibilities this opens up.

Source: ACM Tech News Newsletter.

– Suramya

March 2, 2023

Intel Releases SDK allowing C++ Developers to start writing code for Quantum Computers

Filed under: Quantum Computing,Tech Related — Suramya @ 8:26 PM

Intel has released a new software platform for Developers (SDK) who are looking to work on Quantum computers. They are not the first (Microsoft released an online course/setup back in 2019) and they certainly won’t be the last to do this.

Unfortunately, while they have released the platform it doesn’t actually run on a quantum computer but rather runs on a quantum computer simulator they have built. But the really interesting thing is that this SDK that they have released allows developers to use C++ to build quantum algorithms instead of having to learn a new programming language which immediately increases the no of people who can hit the ground running and start developing with the SDK.

The platform, called Intel Quantum SDK, would for now allow those algorithms to run on a simulated quantum computing system, said Anne Matsuura, Intel Labs’ head of quantum applications and architecture. Matsuura said developers can use the long-established programming language C++ to build quantum algorithms, making it more accessible for people without quantum computing expertise. “The Intel Quantum SDK helps programmers get ready for future large-scale commercial quantum computers,” Matsuura said in a statement. “It will also advance the industry by creating a community of developers that will accelerate the development of applications.”

Intel will be launching their own version of a Quantum computer in the near future. They are taking a slightly different approach than the others to make the computer, they are basically trying to build this computers using their existing chip-making technology by putting transistors very close to each other, running them at super low temperatures and then use single electrons in the circuit which makes the transistors act as qubits. This sounds like a promising approach but I feel that this is more of a stepping stone on the way to the fully quantum setup as it is a hybrid version of the existing computers and a quantum computer.

Source: Slashdot: Intel Releases Software Platform for Quantum Computing Developers

– Suramya

February 27, 2023

It is now possible to put undetectable Backdoors in Machine Learning Models

Filed under: Computer Software,Emerging Tech,My Thoughts,Tech Related — Suramya @ 10:18 PM

Machine Learning (ML) has become the new go to buzzword in the Tech world in the last few years and everyone seems to be focusing on how they can include ML/AI in their products, regardless of whether it makes sense to include or not. One of the bigest dangers of this trend is that we are moving towards a future where an algorithm would have the power to make decisions that have real world impacts but due to the complexity it would be impossible to audit/check the system for errors/bugs, non-obvious biases or signs of manipulation etc. For example, we have had cases where the wrong person was identified as a fugitive and arrested because an AI/ML system claimed that they matched the suspect. Others have used ML to try to predict crimes with really low accuracy but people take it as gospel because the computer said so…

With ML models becoming more and more popular there is also more research on how these models are vulnerable to attacks. In December 2022 researchers (Shafi Goldwasser, Michael P. Kim, Vinod Vaikuntanathan and Or Zamir) from UC Berkely, MIT and Princeton published a paper titled “Planting Undetectable Backdoors in Machine Learning Models” in the IEEE 63rd Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) where they discuss how it would be possible to train a model in a way that it allowed an attacker to manipulate the results without being detected by any computationally-bounded observer.

Abstract: Given the computational cost and technical expertise required to train machine learning models, users may delegate the task of learning to a service provider. Delegation of learning has clear benefits, and at the same time raises serious concerns of trust. This work studies possible abuses of power by untrusted learners.We show how a malicious learner can plant an undetectable backdoor into a classifier. On the surface, such a backdoored classifier behaves normally, but in reality, the learner maintains a mechanism for changing the classification of any input, with only a slight perturbation. Importantly, without the appropriate “backdoor key,” the mechanism is hidden and cannot be detected by any computationally-bounded observer. We demonstrate two frameworks for planting undetectable backdoors, with incomparable guarantees.

First, we show how to plant a backdoor in any model, using digital signature schemes. The construction guarantees that given query access to the original model and the backdoored version, it is computationally infeasible to find even a single input where they differ. This property implies that the backdoored model has generalization error comparable with the original model. Moreover, even if the distinguisher can request backdoored inputs of its choice, they cannot backdoor a new input­a property we call non-replicability.

Second, we demonstrate how to insert undetectable backdoors in models trained using the Random Fourier Features (RFF) learning paradigm (Rahimi, Recht; NeurIPS 2007). In this construction, undetectability holds against powerful white-box distinguishers: given a complete description of the network and the training data, no efficient distinguisher can guess whether the model is “clean” or contains a backdoor. The backdooring algorithm executes the RFF algorithm faithfully on the given training data, tampering only with its random coins. We prove this strong guarantee under the hardness of the Continuous Learning With Errors problem (Bruna, Regev, Song, Tang; STOC 2021). We show a similar white-box undetectable backdoor for random ReLU networks based on the hardness of Sparse PCA (Berthet, Rigollet; COLT 2013).

Our construction of undetectable backdoors also sheds light on the related issue of robustness to adversarial examples. In particular, by constructing undetectable backdoor for an “adversarially-robust” learning algorithm, we can produce a classifier that is indistinguishable from a robust classifier, but where every input has an adversarial example! In this way, the existence of undetectable backdoors represent a significant theoretical roadblock to certifying adversarial robustness.

Basically they are talking about having a ML model that works correctly most of the time but allows the attacker to manipulate the results if they want. One example use case would be something like the following: A bank uses a ML model to decide if they should give out a loan to an applicant and because they don’t want to be accused of being discriminatory they give it to folks to test and validate and the model comes back clean. However, unknown to the testers the model has been backdoored using the techniques in the paper above so the bank can modify the output in certain cases to deny the loan application even though they would have qualified. Since the model was tested and ‘proven’ to be without bias they are in the clear as the backdoor is pretty much undetectable.

Another possible attack vector is that a nation state funds a company that trains ML models and has them insert a covert backdoor in the model, then they have the ability to manipulate the output from the model without any trace. Imagine if this model was used to predict if the nation state was going to attack or not. Even if they were going to attack they could use the backdoor to fool the target into thinking that all was well.

Having a black box making such decisions is what I would call a “Bad Idea”. At least with the old (non-ML) algorithms we could audit the code to see if there were issues with ML that is not really possible and thus this becomes a bigger threat. There are a million other such scenarios that could be played and if we put blind trust in an AI/ML system then we are setting ourselves up for a disaster that we would never see coming.

Source: Schneier on Security: Putting Undetectable Backdoors in Machine Learning Models

– Suramya

February 1, 2023

Product Idea: Use ChatGPT to write movie/TV Tech Jargon dialogs

Filed under: Emerging Tech,My Thoughts,Tech Related — Suramya @ 3:00 AM

ChatGPT has taken the world by storm and everyday we hear more and more stories about how good it is and how it is changing the world. Personally I think the best description of the software is how Christine Lemmer-Webber put it:

ChatGPT is Mansplaining As A Service. A service that instantly generates vaguely plausible sounding yet totally fabricated and baseless lectures in an instant with unflagging confidence in its own correctness on any topic, without concern, regard or even awareness of the level of expertise of its audience.

People are using it for anything and everything including writing exams, writing articles, job posts, etc etc. While the result we get looks quite plausible there have been multiple cases where the output is subtly wrong and using the result as is can cause problems. However, there is one place that I can think of that ChatGPT would be extremely useful without any major drawbacks. If you have seen any TV show recently there are a lot of times where the characters will use technobabble to explain something and a lot of times the explanations are so ridiculous that they end up distracting you from the actual plot (such as it is).

My idea is that we encourage the writers to start using ChatGPT to write the jargon, even if it gets it wrong it wouldn’t be worse than what we have already so it is a win win. Plus since we all know that media tech works differently we don’t have to worry about the results being 100% accurate or correct.

One example is as below:

Forensic Scientist 1: Hey, have you seen the results from the trace DNA sample we collected from the crime scene?
Forensic Scientist 2: Not yet, I was just about to head over to the lab and check. Why, did you already receive them?
Forensic Scientist 1: Yeah, I just got an email from the lab. They’re pretty clear cut.
Forensic Scientist 2: Great, let’s take a look. What do the results show?
Forensic Scientist 1: Well, the sample is a match with the reference sample from our suspect. The lab confirmed a positive identification.
Forensic Scientist 2: That’s fantastic. Did they provide any details on the genetic markers?
Forensic Scientist 1: Yes, they identified several short tandem repeat markers that match between the sample and the reference. They also ran a mitochondrial DNA analysis and got a match there too.
Forensic Scientist 2: This is really strong evidence. But we need to be sure to double check all the details, especially since this is a high-profile case.
Forensic Scientist 1: Absolutely. I was thinking we should do a full review of the lab’s methodology and verify that the samples were handled and stored properly.
Forensic Scientist 2: That’s a great idea. Let’s also review the lab’s accreditation and see if they meet all the necessary standards.
Forensic Scientist 1: Right, we want to make sure our evidence is solid and can stand up in court.
Forensic Scientist 2: Definitely. Well, let’s head over to the lab and start our review.
Forensic Scientist 1: Sounds good. Let’s do it.

Another example:

Cybersecurity Professional 1: Hey, have you seen the alert about the recent cyberattack?
Cybersecurity Professional 2: Yes, I just received the notification. What do we know so far?
Cybersecurity Professional 1: The attack appears to be a phishing campaign. The attackers are using fake emails to steal login credentials from unsuspecting victims.
Cybersecurity Professional 2: That’s a common tactic. Did they manage to compromise any systems?
Cybersecurity Professional 1: Yes, we have reports of several systems being breached. Our incident response team is currently investigating the extent of the damage.
Cybersecurity Professional 2: Okay, let’s see if we can help with the investigation. What’s the first step?
Cybersecurity Professional 1: First, we need to isolate the infected systems and contain the spread of the attack. Then we can start looking into how the attackers gained access and what they did once they were in.
Cybersecurity Professional 2: Right. I’ll start working on the containment and isolation. Have you seen any indications of what the attackers are after?
Cybersecurity Professional 1: It’s not clear yet, but it looks like they are targeting sensitive information, such as financial data and personal information. We need to be proactive and make sure all our systems and data are secure.
Cybersecurity Professional 2: Agreed. We need to inform the relevant stakeholders about the attack and what measures we’re taking to prevent further damage.
Cybersecurity Professional 1: Absolutely. We also need to start preparing for the worst-case scenario, in case the attackers managed to exfiltrate any data.
Cybersecurity Professional 2: That’s a good point. We need to be prepared for the aftermath and make sure we have a plan in place to respond effectively.
Cybersecurity Professional 1: Right. Let’s get to work and make sure we minimize the impact of this attack.

What do you think?

– Suramya

November 14, 2022

IBM Unveils the worlds largest Quantum Computer with 433 qubits

Filed under: My Thoughts,Quantum Computing — Suramya @ 2:01 AM

Scaling up Quantum computers has become a race between the various players in the market and IBM has raised the stakes by unveiling a 433 qubits Quantum computer that is more than a 3x increase from their previous setup of 127 qubits. Even with this massive gain they are still ways off from a making a 4000 qubit computer by 2025 which is their goal.

In this new setup IBM replaced the “quantum chandelier” used in the previous processors with flexible ribbon cables that are designed for cryogenic environments. These new cables allow a more efficient flow of microwave signals which in turn decreased the interference caused by the cables. This gave them a 77% increase in the number of connections to the chip, which in turn enabled them to scale up more easily. They also separated the wires and components for control and readout into their own layers, which further reduced the interference with the qubits.

The new setup also includes a state of the art cryo-CMOS prototype controller chip implemented using 14-nanometer FinFET technology that reduces the power requirement for the setup from about 100 watts per qubit to about 10 milliwatts per qubit. The new beta update for Qiskit Runtime allows the user to trade speed for reduced error count and a new option called Qiskit primitives called a “resilience level” lets users dial in the cost/accuracy trade that is suitable to the task being worked on. Both functionality is expected to be ready for production release by 2025.

Quantum computing makes my head hurt but there is no doubt that it is changing the computing world in a massive way.

* IEEE Spectrum: IBM Unveils 433-Qubit Osprey Chip
* New Scientist: IBM unveils world’s largest quantum computer at 433 qubits

– Suramya

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