Cool Space Thing happening. Go outside and look up (via XKCD)

Thinking about it a little more, it might be a fun project to create. The data can be pulled from some of the astronomy sites that track predictable events (eclipses/meteor showers etc). The tricky part would be to get information for events that are last min, such as Aurora sightings etc.

Something to think about for when I get some free time.

– Suramya

]]>It is rude but it makes the point beautifully. ‘Guys’ is not a gender neutral term and it never was. Just that people are so used to using it and didn’t want to change that it became sort of accepted.

Language is powerful and important. It can build communities and connections or it can break connections. For example, if you have a mixed gender group and are calling everyone guys you are indirectly telling the non male population that they are not part of the team or not important enough to be recognized. This is not to show that you are ‘woke’ or whatever but just basic human courtesy.

You should always use the correct language when interacting with others and believe me it does get noticed.

– Suramya

]]>A formula presents how pi can be calculated using a series developed by the Indian scholar Madhava.

While the formula is quite simple to implement and calculate it takes a long time to get accurate results. There are other formulas as well to calculate Pi. The latest one was found when physicists Arnab Priya Saha and Aninda Sinha of the Indian Institute of Science were exploring the String Theory and instead found a completely new formula for calculating Pi. They published their findings in their Paper (Field Theory Expansions of String Theory Amplitudes)

Saha and Sinha discovered the following formula which shows that Madhava’s formula is only a special case of a much more general equation for calculating pi.

A formula presents a way of calculating pi that was identified by physicists Arnab Priya Saha and Aninda Sinha.

I tried understanding the math behind the formula but it didn’t really make much sense to me so I am just going to quote the explanation given by Scientific American here instead of trying to explain it myself.

This formula produces an infinitely long sum. What is striking is that it depends on the factor λ , a freely selectable parameter. No matter what value λ has, the formula will always result in pi. And because there are infinitely many numbers that can correspond to λ, Saha and Sinha have found an infinite number of pi formulas.

If λ is infinitely large, the equation corresponds to Madhava’s formula. That is, because λ only ever appears in the denominator of fractions, the corresponding fractions for λ = ∞ become zero (because fractions with large denominators are very small). For λ = ∞, the equation of Saha and Sinha therefore takes the following form:

Saha and Sinha’s formula can be adapted based on the assumption of an infinitely large parameter.The first part of the equation is already similar to Madhava’s formula: you sum fractions with odd denominators. The last part of the sum (–n)n – 1, however, is less familiar. The subscript n – 1 is the so-called Pochhammer symbol. In general, the expression (a)n corresponds to the product a x(a + 1) x (a + 2) x … x (a + n – 1). For example, (5)3 = 5 x 6 x 7 = 210. And the Pochhammer symbol in the above formula therefore results in: (–n)n – 1 = (–n) x (–n + 1) x (–n + 2) x … x (–n + n – 3) x (–n + n – 2).

..

..

As the two string theorists report, however, pi can be calculated much faster for smaller values of λ. While Madhava’s result requires 100 terms to get within 0.01 of pi, Saha and Sinha’s formula for λ = 3 only requires the first four summands. “While [Madhava’s] series takes 5 billion terms to converge to 10 decimal places, the new representation with λ between 10 [and] 100 takes 30 terms,” the authors write in their paper.

Source: Hacker News: String Theorists Accidentally Find a New Formula for Pi

– Suramya

]]>Here’s how my name looks:

Suramya: Spelled using landsat images

Hovering the cursor on each image gives you the name and location of the geological/geographical image used.

Source: Mastodon.world: @davidho

– Suramya

]]>Initially they refused to do so because *“With digital obsolescence threatening many early technological formats, the dilemma surrounding Admiral Hopper’s lecture underscores the critical need for and challenge of digital preservation. This challenge transcends the confines of NSA’s operational scope. It is our shared obligation to safeguard such pivotal elements of our nation’s history, ensuring they remain within reach of future generations. While the stewardship of these recordings may extend beyond the NSA’s typical purview, they are undeniably a part of America’s national heritage.”*.

Thankfully after a massive push from the all over the world to get NSA to release the video saner minds prevailed and the entirety of the lecture has been released in two parts. You can watch them below:

Capt. Grace Hopper on Future Possibilities: Data, Hardware, Software, and People (Part One, 1982)

Capt. Grace Hopper on Future Possibilities: Data, Hardware, Software, and People (Part Two, 1982)

Since I don’t trust online systems to keep information available indefinitely, I have also archived the lectures on my system so if they disappear in the future I will have copies I can publish.

– Suramya

]]>The risks posed by Artificial Intelligence (AI) are of considerable concern to academics, auditors, policymakers, AI companies, and the public. However, a lack of shared understanding of AI risks can impede our ability to comprehensively discuss, research, and react to them. This paper addresses this gap by creating an AI Risk Repository to serve as a common frame of reference.

This comprises a living database of 777 risks extracted from 43 taxonomies, which can be filtered based on two overarching taxonomies and easily accessed, modified, and updated via our website and online spreadsheets. We construct our Repository with a systematic review of taxonomies and other structured classifications of AI risk followed by an expert consultation. We develop our taxonomies of AI risk using a best-fit framework synthesis. Our high-level Causal Taxonomy of AI Risks classifies each risk by its causal factors (1) Entity: Human, AI; (2) Intentionality: Intentional, Unintentional; and (3) Timing: Pre-deployment; Post-deployment. Our mid-level Domain Taxonomy of AI Risks classifies risks into seven AI risk domains: (1) Discrimination & toxicity, (2) Privacy & security, (3) Misinformation, (4) Malicious actors & misuse, (5) Human-computer interaction, (6) Socioeconomic & environmental, and (7) AI system safety, failures, & limitations. These are further divided into 23 subdomains. The AI Risk Repository is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to rigorously curate, analyze, and extract AI risk frameworks into a publicly accessible, comprehensive, extensible, and categorized risk database. This creates a foundation for a more coordinated, coherent, and complete approach to defining, auditing, and managing the risks posed by AI systems.

They have published a paper on it: The AI Risk Repository: A Comprehensive Meta-Review, Database, and Taxonomy of Risks From Artificial Intelligence that you should check out. They have also made their entire database available to copy for free as well.

Check it out if you have some free time.

Source: Boingboing.net: MIT’s AI risk database exposes 700+ ways AI could ruin your life.

– Suramya

]]>This is a phenomenally creative video, something that I couldn’t create in a 100 years. Check it out below.

Anime character breaks free and hijack’s the 3D software

Source: Boingboing.net: Anime character breaks free: Watch her hijack 3D software in video

– Suramya

]]>You can access the list and instructions on how to install/play them at: https://osgameclones.com/, which gathers open-source or source-available remakes of great old games in one place.

A

Remakeis a game where the executable and sometimes the assets as well are remade open source. Some of these games aren’t exact remakes but evolution of original ones, which were eventually open sourced.

ACloneis a game which is very similar to or heavily inspired by a game or series.

AnOfficialproject is the official source code release for a game that was formerly closed-source, maintained by the original creators and has minimal changes.

ASimilargame is one which has similar gameplay but is not a clone.

AToolis not a game, but something that assists in playing or modding the game, such as a high resolution patch, or resource extractor.

I see Open source versions of Classics like Decent II, Doom II/III and many more on the site. Check it out if you have some free time.

Source: Boingboing.net: Open source clones of classic video games

]]>We are SAP (es-ay-pea) #SayItRight

– Suramya

]]>The new standards are designed for two essential tasks for which encryption is typically used: general encryption, used to protect information exchanged across a public network; and digital signatures, used for identity authentication. NIST announced its selection of four algorithms — CRYSTALS-Kyber, CRYSTALS-Dilithium, Sphincs+ and FALCON — slated for standardization in 2022 and released draft versions of three of these standards in 2023. The fourth draft standard based on FALCON is planned for late 2024.

While there have been no substantive changes made to the standards since the draft versions, NIST has changed the algorithms’ names to specify the versions that appear in the three finalized standards, which are:

- Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 203, intended as the primary standard for general encryption. Among its advantages are comparatively small encryption keys that two parties can exchange easily, as well as its speed of operation. The standard is based on the CRYSTALS-Kyber algorithm, which has been renamed ML-KEM, short for Module-Lattice-Based Key-Encapsulation Mechanism.
- FIPS 204, intended as the primary standard for protecting digital signatures. The standard uses the CRYSTALS-Dilithium algorithm, which has been renamed ML-DSA, short for Module-Lattice-Based Digital Signature Algorithm.
- FIPS 205, also designed for digital signatures. The standard employs the Sphincs+ algorithm, which has been renamed SLH-DSA, short for Stateless Hash-Based Digital Signature Algorithm. The standard is based on a different math approach than ML-DSA, and it is intended as a backup method in case ML-DSA proves vulnerable.
Similarly, when the draft FIPS 206 standard built around FALCON is released, the algorithm will be dubbed FN-DSA, short for FFT (fast-Fourier transform) over NTRU-Lattice-Based Digital Signature Algorithm.

This is a significant step in ensuring our data and systems are protected against threats that are on the horizon. The Register has a good article on this topic (NIST finalizes trio of post-quantum encryption standards) that I highly recommend you check out.

Sources:

* Mastodon.social

* Schneier.com: NIST Releases First Post-Quantum Encryption Algorithms